PTE Retell Lecture Practice: 10 Câu Hại Não Kèm Đáp Án Chi Tiết!

Cập nhật: 28-03-2024 02:27:33 | Blog | Lượt xem: 479

Đối với một số thí sinh phần thi PTE Retell Lecture là một phần thi không dễ “nuốt” vì vừa phải nghe, take note và thuật lại nội dung đoạn lecture trong thời gian ngắn. Tuy nhiên, nếu được luyện tập với template chuẩn và hiểu cách áp dụng template hiệu quả thì phần thi này lại khá dễ dàng để lấy điểm.

Vì vậy, hôm nay PEC  xin gởi đến các bạn 10 câu khó mà lại thường hay xuất hiện trong bài thi kèm đáp án chi tiết do Đội Ngũ Thu Thập Đề độc quyền được tổng hợp. Các bạn có thể kết hợp với template trong bài viết bên dưới để luyện tập nhé.

PTE Retell Lecture được chấm điểm như thế nào?

Theo Score Guide của Pearson, phần thi Retell Lecture được đánh giá dựa trên 3 tiêu chí:

  • Content (nội dung)

  • Oral Fluency (độ trôi chảy)

  • Pronunciation (phát âm)

Mỗi tiêu chí đều có thang điểm tối đa là 5. Tuy nhiên để đạt được 5 điểm cho tiêu chí Content, thí sinh cần phải mô tả lại được hết các khía cạnh của chủ đề; các mối quan hệ giữa những yếu tố; còn phải liệt kê được sự phát triển ý của tác giả.

Để lấy được điểm tối đa cho tiêu chí Content không đơn giản và đây cũng không phải là trọng điểm mà người thi nên hướng tới. Vì trong 3 tiêu chí trên, thang điểm 5 ở tiêu chí Oral Fluency và Pronunciation dễ đạt được hơn so với tiêu chí Content.

TOP 10 CÂU RETELL LECTURE PRACTICE HẠI NÃO KÈM ĐÁP ÁN

  1. Tools 4: Black Hole 

This simulation shows what you might see if you are orbiting a black hole. The light and position of background stars around the hole are distorted by its gravity and they seem to spin around. On the right, the constellation Orion appears to approach the event horizon, the boundary from which nothing can escape. Orion stars look like they become separated and get spun around. Once the hole has passed by, Orion reappears on the left and looks normal again. Users can also experiment with different scenarios. This is what you might see if you were traveling towards a black hole with rocket engines slowing your descent. Another simulation mimics free fall into a hole. In the middle, the light of the entire universe appears to be concentrated in a bright ring.

  • The lecturer talks about what happens to stars when orbiting a black hole. Due to the enormous gravity of the black hole, the light and positions of stars around the hole are captured and distorted.

  • Đoạn audio nói về những điều sẽ xảy ra với các ngôi sao khi chúng quay quanh lỗ đen vũ trụ. Do lực hấp dẫn cực lớn của lỗ đen, ánh sáng và vị trí của các ngôi sao xung quanh bị thu nạp và biến dạng.

  1. Tools 8: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 

The basis of all life on Earth is the cell. All creatures on Earth are made up of cells. I’m not gonna dwell on the biology of cells and much is it not that relevant. But do want to point out a few things. First of all, there are 2 sorts of cells. As we think all the prokaryotic cell, which is fairly simple and it’s the thing that all bacteria are made of. And then we have a eukaryotic cell, much more complicated beasts on the right, which did not appear until well into the history of the biosphere on earth. And there are many single-celled eukaryotes. But there are also and importantly multicellular organisms and all of those are based on the eukaryotic cell.   

  • The lecturer talks about the two basic types of cells that make up the basis of all life on Earth. These are prokaryotic cell appearing in bacteria and eukaryotic cell appearing in multicellular organisms.

  • Đoạn audio nói về hai loại tế bào cơ bản tạo nên cơ sở cho sự sống trên Trái Đất. Đó là tế bào nhân sơ xuất hiện ở vi khuẩn và tế bào nhân thực xuất hiện ở sinh vật đa bào.

  1. Tools 10: Melatonin 

I’m just going to take on the stuff where left off. The hormone I want to talk to you about is called melatonin. And it’s synthesized in the Pineal Gland, which is very small. It is the size of a pea in your brain. Decartes called it “the seat of soul”, and it is where melatonin is made. And it has a rhythm as well. And in the sense, it is the opposite of cortisol. It peaks at night. We call it as the darkness hormone. In every species that we studied, melatonin occurs at night. And it’s a hormone that prepares you for the things, that your species, does at night. So, of course, in humans we sleep, but animals, like rodents, they are awake. It’s a hormone that is related to darkness behavior”.

  • The lecture talks about the melatonin, which is the darkness hormone or the hormone occuring at night.          More specifically in this lecture, where the hormone is produced in the body and what behavirour it is responsible for in both humans and animals are mentioned.

  • Đoạn audio nói về melatonin – loại hormone xuất hiện vào ban đêm. Cụ thể hơn, bài giảng đề cập đến nơi sản sinh ra hoocmon và tác động của nó đối với cả người và động vật.

  1. Tools 15: X-ray

This is one picture that you probably you all know what it is when you see it. It’s a familiar looking image it’s something that probably we all have some personal experience with, right? This is a chest x-ray that would be taken in your doctor’s office, for example, or a radiologist’s office. And it is a good example of Biomedical Engineering and that it takes a physical principle, that is how do x-rays interact with the tissues of your body, and it uses that physics, that physical principle to develop a picture of what’s inside your body, so to look inside and see things that you couldn’t see without this device. And you’Il recognize some parts of the image, you can see the ribcage here, the bones you can see the heart is the large bright object down here. If you, have good eyesight from the distance, you can see the vessels leading out of the heart and into the lungs, and the lungs are darker spaces within the ribcage.         

  • The lecturer talks about the physical principle of how x-rays interact with the body’s tissues and develop a picture of inside of the body.

  • Đoạn audio nói về nguyên lý vật lý của việc chụp X-quang: tia X sẽ tương tác với các mô trên cơ thể để tạo nên hình ảnh bên trong cơ thể.

  1. Tools 30: The sound of cracking knee

The sound of a cracking knee isn’t particularly pleasant. But it gets worse when you listen up close. “It does for most people. But for me, it just makes me excited.” Omer Inan, an electrical engineer at Georgia Tech. “I actually feel like there’s some real information in them that can be exploited for the purposes of helping people with rehab.” Inan’s experience with cracking knees goes back to his days as an undergrad at Stanford, where he threw discus. “If I had a really hard workout, then the next day of course I’d be sore, but I’d also sometimes feel this basically catching or popping or creaking every now and then in my knee.” A few years later, he found himself building tiny microphones at a high-end audio company. So when he got to Georgia Tech and heard the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA, wanted better tech for knee injuries, he thought: Why not strap tiny microphones to people’s knees, to eavesdrop as their legs bend?” What we think it is, is the cartilage and bone rubbing against each other, the surfaces inside the knee rubbing against each other, during those movements.” He and a team of physiologists and engineers built a prototype with stretchy athletic tape and a few tiny mics and skin sensors. And preliminary tests on athletes suggest the squishy sounds the device picks up are more erratic, and more irregular, in an injured knee than in a healthy one, which Inan says might allow patients and doctors to track healing after surgery. Details appear in the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.  “The primary application we’re targeting at first is to give people a decision aid during rehabilitation, following an acute knee injury, to help them understand when they can perform particular activities, and when they can move to different intensities of particular activities.” A useful thing to take a crack at.

  • The lecturer talks about the development of a healing-tracking aid for knee injury. This tech is the combination of tiny microphones and skin sensors strapping around the patient’s knee to pick up sounds of bending legs; doctors will then analyse the sounds and decide which rehabilitation activities are suitable for the patient.

  • Đoạn audio nói về sự phát triển của thiết bị hỗ trợ cho việc chữa lành chấn thương đầu gối. Công nghệ này là sự kết hợp giữa cảm biến siêu âm và cảm biến da. Thiết bị sẽ được quấn quanh đầu gối của bệnh nhân để thu âm thanh phát ra khi đầu gối gập lại. Các bác sĩ sau đó sẽ phân tích âm thanh này và quyết định hoạt động trị liệu là nào phù hợp với bệnh nhân.

  1. Tools 54: Brain Development

The brain is basically built from the bottom up. First the brain builds basic circuits that are responsible for basic skills, and then more complex circuits are built on top of those basic circuits as we develop more complex skills. Biologically, the brain is prepared to be shaped by experience. It’s expecting the experiences that a young child has to literally influence the formation of its circuitry, it’s built into our biology. The interaction between genetics and experience that shapes brain architecture is embedded in a reciprocal relationship, the relationships that children have with the adults in their lives. And by that we mean what we refer to as the serve-and-return nature of children’s interaction with their adults development. And the impact of experience on development is not a one-way street. It’s a back-and-forth interaction. The brain is a highly integrated organ which has multiple sections that specialize in different kind of processes, so we have parts of the brain that are involved more in cognitive function and other parts that are involved in processing of emotion and parts involved in seeing and hearing. So if a child is emotionally kind of…well…put together and socially competent, that will affect more positive and productive learning. And if a child is preoccupied with fears or anxiety or is dealing with considerable stress no matter how intellectually gifted that child might be, his or her learning is going to be impaired by that kind of emotional interference.”

  • The lecturer talks about how the brain is developed in a bottom-up manner in children. The brain architecture is shaped by the back-and-forth interaction between genetics and experience and contains multiple sections that specialises in different kinds of processes.

  • Đoạn audio nói về cách não bộ phát triển theo hướng từ dưới lên ở trẻ em. Cấu trúc não bộ được hình thành bởi sự tương tác qua lại giữa di truyền và kinh nghiệm sống. Não bộ còn được tổ chức theo nhiều khu vực, và mỗi khu vực có những chức năng khác nhau.

  1. Tools 162: DNA - Gene Development 

But I’m going to focus on today, is really different larger forms of genetic variation involving essentially gains, losses and inversions of sequence. So showing here is a 30 in the simple diagram. We have an example of some structural variation operationally defined as events greater than a KB in size. So we have pieces of DNA that sometimes become deleted. We have pieces of DNA that sometimes become duplicated on chromosomes and regions which can be in fact inverted or turned around with respect to another orientation. So this very busy map here represents probably about three years of work in my lab, just to kind of characterize the general pattern of structural variation in eight human genomes. So shown here are different human chromosomes for from African, and for from non-African the distinctions really aren’t that important, but what I’m showing you here, is the presence of insertions deletions and inversions as red as blue red and green and so each line here represents a different human genome that has been analyzed looking for structural variation of events greater than 5,000 base pairs in size, so a couple things you can maybe get from. This is you can see that there’s a lot of genetic variation out there, that is above the level of single base pair change and most of the events that you’re seeing here are essentially inherited, but we now know based on studying roughly about 2,000 human genomes, but there’s a significant fraction of very large events often hundreds of KB in size that are either individually specific or specific to specific families , so this is kind of changing our view of the dynamic nature of the human genome.

  • The lecturer talks about genetic variation involving the gains, losses and inversions of DNA pieces. Most of the DNA sequences are essentially inherited, but there’s a significant fraction that are individual-specific or family-specific.

  • Đoạn audio nói về việc biến dị di truyền là quá trình đến sự tăng, giảm và đảo đoạn DNA. Hầu hết các trình tự DNA về cơ bản là được di truyền, nhưng có một phần đáng kể chỉ xuất hiện ở cấp độ cá nhân hoặc gia đình.

  1. Tools 130: Fossilization 

The preservation of embryos and juveniles is a rate occurrence in the fossil record. The tiny, delicate skeletons are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by weathering before they can be fossilized. Ichthyosaurs had a higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial creatures because, as marine animals, they tended to live in environments less subject to erosion. Still, their fossilization required a suite of factors: a slow rate of decay of soft tissues, little scavenging by other animals, a lack of swift currents and waves to jumble and carry away small bones, and fairly rapid burial. Given these factors, some areas have become a treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossils. The deposits at Holzmaden, Germany, present an interesting case for analysis. The ichthyosaur remains are found in black, bituminous marine shales deposited about 190 million years ago. Over the years, thousands of specimens of marine reptiles, fish and invertebrates have been recovered from these rocks. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzmaden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development; their paddles, for example, are already well formed. One specimen is even preserved in the birth canal. In addition, the shale contains the remains of many newborns that are between 20 and 30 inches long. Why are there so many pregnant females and young at Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere? The quality of preservation is almost unmatched and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.

  • The lecturer talks about Holzmaden, Germany, which is the area possessing high rate of occurrence of Ichthyosaur fossils, especially fossils of embryos. The question remains of why this specific site is used by many pregnant ichthyosaurs at their time of giving birth.

  • Đoạn audio nói về Holzmaden, Đức – khu vực sở hữu tỷ lệ xuất hiện hóa thạch của khủng long Ichthyosaur cao, đặc biệt là hóa thạch phôi thai. Câu hỏi được đặt ra là tại sao nơi này lại được sử dụng là nơi sinh nở của nhiều khủng long Ichthyosaurs.

  1. Tools 8:  Sensing Systems in Smartphone apps

Computer scientist Shweta Patel and his team are developing new sensing systems. “The initial focus was really around energy and water monitoring.” They built a new generation of smart sensors that monitor electronic interference on a home’s power line or water pressure changes in the plumbing. Most of this technology has already found industrial applications, and Patel and his team turned their attention to adapting this technology for personal health monitoring. “So how do we take this noise and make it into a signal of interest was kind of in the core of what we did for many years and we’re taking that work and applying it to other domains.” They’re looking to take advantage of all the functionality built in our smartphones. With the users’ permission, this app can use the microphone built into most smartphones to listen to background noises, such as coughing, searching for patterns that suggest a trip to the doctor might be an order. “We constructed these models that try and understand how sound works, how it, what its patterns are and we give it a whole bunch of examples of different kinds of audio things, like people talking, things like people laughing, sneezing and of course coughing. This app uses a phone’s camera to check haemoglobin levels in blood by analyzing the color of capillary fluids through the skin. Generally, what happens is if you’re anemic, your bloods are going to be a little less red and we take advantage of that by putting your finger over a camera of a phone. The camera of the phone can actually see the coloration of the blood. This test uses the camera to tell parents worried about jaundice in newborn infants. “Now jaundice is something that doctors who have seen tons of babies can just kind of figure out on a very basic level of is this baby, do they need to get treatment or are they in a good condition, whereas the first-time parent has no idea necessarily what jaundice might look like.” The researchers say the built-in sensors found in smartphones are already commonplace, but their applications and their implications for our health and well-being may be more far-reaching than we ever imagined.

  • The lecturer talks about the development of new sensing systems for personal health monitoring using the advantage of built-in functionality in smartphones. More specifically, built-in microphones are utilised to listen to background noises and detect health signals; cameras are used to check hemoglobin levels in blood by analyzing the color of capillary fluids.

  • Đoạn audio nói về sự phát triển của hệ thống cảm biến mới sử dụng các chức năng tích hợp trong điện thoại thông minh để theo dõi sức khỏe cá nhân. Cụ thể hơn, micrô tích hợp được tận dụng để lắng nghe tiếng ồn xung quanh và phát hiện các tín hiệu sức khỏe; hay máy ảnh được sử dụng để kiểm tra nồng độ hemoglobin trong máu bằng cách phân tích màu sắc của mao mạch trên da.

  1. Tools 82: Biology 

Now, you might think it strange that in a lecture on biology, I will be talking a lot about mathematics… urn … If I may digress a bit … When I was a student, mathematics, the language of dear abstraction, had nothing to do with life sciences like biology, the sphere of messy organic forms, cutting up frogs in the lab, and so on… um … In fact, I started doing biology precisely to avoid maths and physics. So, I’ve had a lot of catching up to do. We are all aware of how the sciences have come to inter-relate more and more, and not only will mathematics impinge more and more on biology but also, I am told, in the 21″ century, the driving force behind mathematics will be biology. This is partly because mathematicians are always on the lookout for more areas to conquer. But a far greater reason is that the subject has been boiled down to physics and chemistry – obvious attractions for mathematicians. A number of mathematical fields can be applied to biology. For example, knot theory is used in the analysis of the tangled strands of DNA, and abstract geometry in four or more dimensions is used to tell us about viruses. Again, neuroscience appears to be maths friendly and equations can also explain why hallucinogenic drugs cause the users to see spirals. So, if mathematicians are taking such a keen interest in biology, the least we can do as biologists is return the compliment.

  • The lecturer talks about how maths and biology have come to inter-relate more and more in the 21st century. Maths impinges on biology, and vice versa, biology is the driving force behind maths.

  • Đoạn audio nói về việc toán học và sinh học ngày càng có mối liên hệ với nhau nhiều hơn trong thế kỷ 21. Toán học ảnh hưởng nhiều đến sinh học, nhưng ngược lại, sinh học cũng là động lực thúc đẩy toán học trong thời đại này.

 

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